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Anthropogenic and environmental factors associated with high incidence of mcr-1 carriage in humans across China


Yingbo Shen, Hongwei Zhou, Jiao Xu, Yongqiang Wang, Qijing Zhang, Timothy R Walsh, Bing Shao, Congming Wu, Yanyan Hu, Lu Yang, Zhangqi Shen, Zuowei Wu, Qiaoling Sun, Yanran Ou, Yueling Wang, Shaolin Wang, Yongning Wu, Chang Cai, Juan Li, Jianzhong Shen, Rong Zhang, Yang Wang


MCR-1-positve Escherichia coli (MCRPEC) have been reported in humans worldwide; however, thus far, their prevalence is low and potential sources for human mcr-1 carriage have not yet been identified. Here, we analyse a nationwide epidemiological dataset on MCRPEC in humans throughout China and assess the factors associated with MCRPEC carriage using natural and national anthropogenic data. We identified 774 non-duplicate MCRPEC isolates from 774 stool samples collected from 5,159 healthy individuals in 30 provinces and municipalities in 2016, with a prevalence of MCRPEC ranging from 3.7 to 32.7% (average: 15.0%)-substantially higher than previously reported. MCRPEC carriage was associated with provincial regions, the production of sheep and freshwater aquaculture, annual consumption of total meat, pork and mutton, and daily intake of aquaculture products. MCRPEC was significantly more prevalent in provinces with higher aquaculture industries. Whole-genome sequencing analysis revealed that the MCRPEC isolates were clustered into four distinct lineages, two of which were dominant and harboured most of the MCRPEC isolates. The high prevalence of MCRPEC in the community poses a substantial risk for colistin usage in clinical practice and suggests the need for intestinal screening of mcr-1 carriers in intensive care units in Chinese hospitals. Furthermore, our data suggest that aquaculture is a significant reservoir of mcr-1.



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Anthropogenic and environmental factors associated with high incidence of mcr-1 carriage in humans across China-基因组-平台实力-安诺优达